In the composites industry, Kladitis highlighted sand erosion resistant nano-enhanced composite coatings, such as polymer nanocomposite co-cure coatings using aramid fibers, which don’t chip and improve the erosion rate by five to 10 times. He also highlighted the use of nano-reinforcements in thermoset and thermoplastics, noting that nano-reinforced thermoplastics are so much better at maintaining their aspect ratio and strength relative to chopped carbon thermoplastics that the latter appear as a “sea of defects and places to fail” in a side-by-side microscopic comparison. And, he added, the emergence of bulk production of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in sheets, yarns and slurry and light-weight bulk CNT wires will continue to drive innovation as manufacturers move into the field.